Data SHEET 9
Parts of Flowers
Flowers are beautiful to the states, but for the plant they serve a critical function. Flowers are how plants produce seeds to reproduce. In many cases, the blossom contains male person and female parts, roughly equivalent to the male and female sexes of animals. The male parts of the flower are chosen the
and are fabricated up of the
at the top and the stalk or
that supports the anther. The female person elements are collectively chosen the
pistil. The pinnacle of the pistil is called the
stigma, which is a mucilaginous surface receptive to pollen. The bottom of the pistil contains the
and the narrowed region in between is called the
style. The male contribution or
is produced in the anther, and seeds develop in the ovary. Many of the fruits we eat are the thickened ovary walls surrounding the seeds.
Not merely does the flower contain the sexual parts necessary for reproduction, they are also like flashy roadside billboards advertizement a rich supply of nectar and pollen ready and waiting for pollinating insects and other creatures.
That is the bargain offered. Flowers trade rewards (in the course of sugary nectar and pollen) in return for the service that insects and other pollinators perform.
is just the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma.
occurs much later when the pollen grains germinate on the stigma and send downwardly a pollen tube which releases the sex cells to fertilize the ovules. After fertilization, the ovules get the seeds, and the ovary wall becomes the fruit.
The sexual nature of flowers and the role of the many forms, colors and scents in attracting pollinators was discovered in 1759 by Arthur Dobbs.
Angiosperms. Flowering plants that have a condensed shoot tip specialized for reproduction.
Anthers. The bright yellow sacs that produce and contain the pollen grains.
Composites. Flowers such as daisies, sunflowers and their relatives that are made up of lots of tiny flowers but expect just like a single bloom.
The thin stem that supports the anther in the male portion of the flower.
Gametes. The sex cells of a blossom, both male and female. The gametes are porduced inside the anthers of the male part and the ovary of the female part of the blossom.
Gymnosperms. Plants that produce seeds without flowers, such as conifers.
Nectar. A sugary liquid reward for pollinators that is produced by the nectaries.
Nectaries. The tissue at the base of a flower (or elsewhere) that secrete nectar. Some plants, such as cotton wool, have nectaries on the leaves or stems. These are called extrafloral nectaries, and may serve to attract beneficial insects. An example is the extrafloral nectaries of peonies (a bloom) that attract ants that in plow protect the unopened flower buds from caterpillars.
Ovary. The base of the female person portion of the flower containing the ovules which get seeds.
Perfect flowers incorporate both the male parts and female parts inside a unmarried flower construction.
Petals. The colorful, sparse structures that surround the sexual parts of the flower. Not only attract pollinators, merely also protect the pistil and stamen. May also produce a scent.
Pollen grains. The powdery particles that contain the male sexual activity cells (gametes). Also a nutritious, protein-rich nutrient for bees.
Pollination. The deed of transferring pollen from the anther to the stigma. The pollen may be carried past the air current or water, but is usually transported by a go-between insect, bird or bat.
Sepals. Unremarkably light-green, leaflike structures that protect the bud prior to opening.
Stamen. Male person part of flower consisting of anther and filament.
Stigma. Pasty surface where the pollen lands and germinates.
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